Laboratory for control of factors of working environment -type “C”

Laboratory for control / measurement /
Factors of working environment -type “C” in Mediko Ltd.

Accreditation Certificate:
Executive Agency “Bulgarian Accreditation Service”
/BAS/ Reg. № 100,
from 27.06.2003
valid until 31.12.2014

  1. Control / measurement / factor working and living environment

    1. Physical work environment factors:

      • microclimate – temperature, relative humidity and air velocity
      • Illuminance
      • noise at work, home and environment – noise, equivalent noise level, peak level of sound pressure level of daily exposure to noise, average weekly level of exposure to noise at day, evening and night at level

      read more about physical work environment factors

      Microclimate of the environment

      The microclimate in the production is a complex microclimate effects of temperature, humidity and velocity of air movement. It is one of the main physical work environment factors, which in practice is often underestimated and overlooked. Characteristic parameters / temperature, infrared radiation, humidity and velocity of the air /, although heterogeneous from the physical aspect are combined of the complex impacts of the processes of thermoregulation of the human body. Employment is not always associated with the presence of one or more other harmful factors, but in any case it is done under certain weather conditions, which are universal and permanent feature of the working conditions. Specific feature of the production microclimate is its bipolarity i.e. ability to deviate from accepted norms in the direction of overheating or overcooling.

      Types of microclimate in the production

      • high temperatures and overheating conditions of employment – long work leads to various disorders and abnormal body changes as: changes in body temperature, fluid and electrolyte balance of body, cardiovascular system and others. In extremely adverse conditions, overheating can occur with its heat hipertemiya severe – heat stroke.
      • low air temperature and cooling conditions – н- bad cold-load leads to disturbances in blood circulation, frostbite of the extremities, etc..
      • intensive heat radiation – in the presence of intense heat / infrared / radiation, as the leading element of the microclimatic conditions, possible occurrence of sunstroke.
      • with strong air currents

      All these features put microclimate in production on special place among the other factors in the workplace

      Hygiene standards for the microclimate parameters are required for workplaces and work areas for all businesses from all sectors of manufacturing and service sector, without underground mining, livestock farms, facilities for storing agricultural produce, refrigerated rooms. Hygiene standards are given in the following regulations and standards.

      Bulgarian Institute for Standardization (BDS) 14776 – Protection of Labor. Workplaces in manufacturing facilities. Sanitary standards for temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and thermal radiation.

      Ordinance № 26 – SG 103/2008 for structure and operation of nurseries and children’s kitchens

      Ordinance № 9/SG 46/1994 – Health and hygiene requirements for the use of computers in education and extracurricular activities of students.

      Ordinance 7/23.09.1999 -on the minimum health and safety of workplaces and the use of working equipment / SG 88/1999

      Important!!! Measurement of the microclimate is necessary:

      1. Upon putting into exploitation of new residential and industrial buildings – requires by a Supervisory Companies to legitimize subjects
      2. It is an inseparable part of risk assessment at work – controlled by the Labour Inspectorate

      Illuminance

      Often compared to other factors in the workplace, posing a serious health risk to employees / noise, vibration, chemical agents in the air / lighting is given undeservedly little attention. Good lighting has beneficial effects to the visual characteristics of the attention of workers, their health.

      Lighting is characterized by quantitative and qualitative indicators. Quantities are Illuminance and brightness of surfaces in the room, and quality are uniformity, glare, ripple, rendering, etc.. Sufficient quantity and proper quality production lighting is directly related to:

      1. Safety at work good lighting reduces the risk of accidents of any nature / contact with moving objects, distinguishing of warning signs, etc.. /.The faster reaction of the worker in an emergency depends on adequate lighting not only facilitated by vision, but also because awareness of people with high levels of illumination.
      2. Labour productivity
        • sufficiently high light levels all improved visual characteristics, and this increases productivity.
        • with an increase in Illuminance proportionally reduced the errors at work
      3. Health at work – good lighting reduces:
        • eye strain and prevents damage to their
        • emergence of visual fatigue and deterioration of vision
        • onset of fatigue, exhaustion and headaches.

      Normative documents:

      Ordinance № 049/SG issue 7/1976- Artificial lighting of buildings.

      Important!!! Control of illumination is required:

      1. Upon putting into exploitation of new residential and industrial buildings – requires by a Supervisory Companies to legitimize subjects
      2. It is an inseparable part of risk assessment at work – controlled by the Labour Inspectorate. Validity of protocol – 1 years

      Шум

      По своето хигиенно значение шумът е на едно от първите места сред неблагоприятно действащите физични фактори. За хигиената практика шума се определя като „всеки нежелан, неприятен и дразнещ звук, който не само може да увреди здравето, но също така да смути отдиха, да доведе до намалена работоспособност и да пречи на трудовата дейност”. В резултат на продължително действие на шума се уврежда преди всичко слуховия анализатор /пряко действие/, но също така той действа и на целия организъм /непряко въздействие/.

      Допустимите нива на шум са установени в:

      1. Наредба №6 /ДВ бр. 58/2006г. за показателите за шум в околната среда, отчитащи степента на дискомфорт през различните части на денонощието, граничните стойности на показателите за шум в околната среда, методите за оценка на стойностите на показателите на шум и на вредните ефекти от шума върху здравето на населението.
      2. Наредба №6/ДВ бр.70/2005г.; – за минималните изисквания за осигуряване на здравето и безопасността на работещите при рискове, свързани с експозиция на шум.

      Варжно!!! НЕОБХОДИМО Е ИЗВЪРШВАНЕТО МУ:

      1. ПРИ ВЪВЕЖДАНЕ В ЕКСПЛОАТАЦИЯ НА НОВИ ЖИЛИЩНИ И ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕНИ СГРАДИ – ИЗИСКВА СЕ ОТ НАДЗОРНИ ФИРМИ ЗА УЗАКОНЯВАНЕ НА ОБЕКТ
      2. НЕРАЗДЕЛНА ЧАСТ СА ОТ ОЦЕНКАТА НА РИСКА ПО РАБОТНИ МЕСТА – КОНТРОЛИРА СЕ ОТ ИНСПЕКЦИЯТА ПО ТРУДА
        • ВАЛИДНОСТ НА ПРОТОКОЛИТЕ 1 ГОД. ЗА ИЗМЕРЕНИ СТОЙНОСТИ НА РАБОТНИ МЕСТА НАД ПРЕДЕЛНО ДОПУСТИМИТЕ НОРМИ – 80 dB
    2. Chemical Agents /factors/ air of the working environment:

      • dust in the production
      • toxic substances

      read more about chemical agents of the working environment

      Harmful chemicals are substances falling within the human body and cause chemical reactions threatening life and health of workers.

      Dust in the production

      These are solid particles suspended in the air of the working environment. Industrial dust are aerosols composed of particles with identical physicochemical properties and consist of heterogeneous particles with different shapes. According to the material composition of the dust are:

      1. Organic dusts
        • animal – silk, wool, bone meal and others.
        • plant – rubber, cotton, flax, tobacco, flour, sugar, etc..
        • synthetic – pharmaceutical preparations, dyes, plastics, detergents, etc..
      2. Inorganic dusts
        • natural materials – rock, coal, glass and others.
        • alkalis, acids – fertilizers, cement and others.
        • glass wool, stone wool, ceramic fibers, etc..
        • metals and metal oxides

      Depending on the source of the dust:

      • From the technological process
      • From adjacent industrial activities related to the release of dust

      Importance of hygiene in the concentration worker’s breathing zone. Subject to control is average concentration of inhaled dust in the worker’s breathing zone.

      Toxic substances

      These are chemicals that are under production conditions can affect the human body to cause a shift in physiological balance and cause illness. Depending on the technological process, they may be intermediate and final waste products in the manufacturing process. Entering the human body can be through inhalation or through skin. Depending on the accumulating properties, toxic substances can be divided into two groups. One group tend to keep the body in varying degrees, the other to exhibit compulsive summation of toxic effects of their action Frequently landfills of toxic substances are bone, liver, kidney and others. Toxic substances and cause significant damage to the blood.

      To prevent harmful effects of dust and toxic substances on worker hygiene rules have been approved under:

      Ordinance № 13/SG issue 8/2004 – Protection of workers from risks related to exposure to chemical agents at work.

      Important!!! Inspection of chemical agents is necessary:

      1. INTEGRAL PART OF ARE THE RISK ASSESSMENT OF JOBS – controls by the labor inspectorate
        • VALIDITY OF PROTOCOL – 1 years for the measurement of workplaces OVER LIMIT hygiene standards
        • Validity of the Protocol 3 years – for the measurement of jobs in the NORM
  2. Control /measurement/ of electrical – electrical installations and equipment up to 1000 V.

    Electrical installation of up to 1000 V:

    • Impedance of “phase-protective wire”
    • Resistance of lightning protection systems
    • Resistance of protective earthing installations
    • Insulation resistance
    • Control circuit safety

    read more about electrical installations and equipment up to 1000 V

    The danger when working with electrical equipment is:

    • Electric shock
    • Thermal injuries / burns
    • Fires and explosions

    The most common cause of accidents is electric shock.

    Grounding – creating an electrical connection part of switchgears / panels, machine / by grounding.

    Clearance – connecting conductive parts which are not normally under pressure to neutral from the mains.

    Защитата от индиректен допир с която се предотвратяват поражения от електрически ток поради възникване на опасни напрежения на части, които нормално не се намират под напрежение са:

    Заземяване – създаване на електрическа връзка на част от електрическата уредба/ електрическо табло, машина/ със заземител.

    Зануляване – свързване на тоководещите части които нормално не са под напрежение с нулевия проводник на електрическата мрежа.

    Depending on the type of protection is determined maximum allowable loop impedance of the “phase-protective conductor” that ensures the exclusion of dangerous stretch of safe time. To be effective clearance, the measured impedance must be less than acceptable. To ensure effectiveness of earthing impedance “phase-protective conductor ‘is measured periodically.

    Protective shutdown – Automatic power-off voltage by special protective circuit breakers

    To ensure efficient operation of any protection is necessary to periodically perform measurements according to

    Ordinance № 16-116 of 2008

    Ordinance № 3 – 2004/SG issue 90 и 91/2004 – Structure of electrical equipments and electricity lines.

    Ordinance № 8 – 2004/SG 6/ 2005 – – For lightning protection of buildings, outdoor facilities and open spaces

    Important!!! Inspection of equipment and facilities up to 1000 V is necessary:

    1. In commissioning of new residential and industrial buildings to legitimize the subject
    2. INTEGRAL PART OF ARE THE RISK ASSESSMENT OF JOBS – controls by the labor inspectorate
      • Validity of the Protocol- 5 years for Phase-protective conductor / IF INTERNAL DOCUMENT COMPANY IS NOT DESIGNATED FOR SHORT TERM /
      • Validity of the Protocol- 1 years for Resistance of earthing and lightning protection
  3. Control / measurement / air conditioning and ventilation systems

    • air conditioning
    • ventilation systems

    read more about air conditioning and ventilation systems

    Ventilation and air conditioning are designed to maintain the parameters of microclimate in confined spaces. Their application in industrial, public works is determined by the requirements of comfort and technology. While functioning in most buildings compromises the maintenance of their air for a number of industries such as electronics, textiles, etc.. this is related to product quality.

    Ventilation a set of events by which to maintain cleanliness and air mobility. Ventilation is achieved through the place of residence of people to air environment contains no harmful gases, vapors and dust over the maximum permissible concentration.

    Air conditioning – a set of events by which a service room is provided: the submission of a sufficient quantity of outside air ventilation, automatic temperature and humidity of the air by heating, cooling, moistening or drying.

    Задачата на вентилацията и климатизацията е да поддържа параметрите на въздушната среда в помещенията в границите на хигиенните и технологични изисквания, чрез създаване на ефективни и икономични вентилационни системи.

    Ordinance № 15 SG 68/2005 – Technical rules and standards for design, construction and operation of facilities and equipment for generation, transmission and distribution of heat.

    ПМС № 329 ДВ, бр.110/17.12.2004г.; – Наредба за условията и реда, при които се допуска по изключение тютюнопушене в обособени зони на закритите обществени места и на закритите работни помещения.

    Important!!! Control of ventilation is needed:

    1. In commissioning of new residential and industrial buildings – requires a Supervisory Companies to legitimize subject:
    2. INTEGRAL PART OF ARE THE RISK ASSESSMENT OF JOBS – controls by the labor inspectorate
    3. ПРИ ЗАВЕДЕНИЯ ЗА ОБЩЕСТВЕНО ХРАНЕНЕ КОНТРОЛ – КОНТРОЛИРАЩ ОРГАН Е РИОКОЗ – ВАЛИДНОСТ НА ПРОТОКОЛИТЕ 1 ГОД.
  4. Control /measurement/ electromagnetic fields

    read more about electromagnetic fields

    These are electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic radiation adversely affect the health and safety. Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by wavelength, intensity electric field, magnetic field intensity, power density. Depending on the frequency of electromagnetic radiation is divided into:

    • electromagnetic fields at power frequency – occurs in some high-voltage power transmission lines in high voltage substations, etc..
    • frequency electromagnetic fields in the range 0.06 to 300 MHz
    • electromagnetic fields in the microwave range 300 to 300 000 MHz

    All notionizing radiation in excess of hygiene standards, adversely affect human health, especially cardiovascular, nervous and reproductive system

    Employer must not allow the intensities of radiation fields and jobs to exceed the maximum values sopustimite. If this is unavoidable, time of residence of workers in such conditions should be limited to the findings.

    Normative documents :

    Ordinance № 7/ SG 48/2001- minimum requirements for health and safety of workplaces and the use of working equipment.

    Ordinance № 9/SG 46/1994 – Health and hygiene requirements for the use of computers in education and extracurricular activities of students.

    Наредба №2/ДВ бр. 15/2007г., – за здравните изисквания към компютърните и интернет зали за обществено ползване

    Ordinance № 2/SG 15/2007 – Health requirements for computer and internet facilities for public use Ordinance № 24 / SG 95/2003

    Important!!! Control /measurement/ electromagnetic fields is needed:

    1. INTEGRAL PART OF ARE THE RISK ASSESSMENT OF JOBS – controls by the labor inspectorate – the Protocol’s validity 2 years.
  5. Control / measurement / Vibration

    • whole-body
    • passed on “hand-arm”

    read more about vibration

    Vibration as a physical concept are material point of hesitation or mechanical system around a steady position. From the physiological aspect of vibration is considered jitter, in which mechanical energy is transmitted to the human body by the vibrating source.

    The main physical parameters which according to international and our standards are adopted for the hygienic characteristics of vibraziite, are: amplitude and acceleration.

    Under way is transmitted to humans, vibrations are:

    • General – are transmitted through the surface of the body of the person sit or stand.
    • Local – are transmitted through the hands of the worker
      Effects of vibration on the human body: tissues and organs react depending on the frequency of vibration.

    Effects of vibration on the human body Тъканите и органите реагират в зависимост от честотата на вибрациите. Нискочестотните вибрации засягат предимно опорно –двигателния апарат, но пропагират и в по-отдалечените тъкани. Високочестотните вибрации засягат сетивността и предизвикват ранни промени в съдовата система. При възникване на резонанс, т.е. при съвпадение на честотата им с тази на тялото, вибрирането на тъканите и органите се усилва и може да предизвика спиране на дейността им.

    When measuring the vibrations into account the acceleration in three axes to position the human body.

    Hygiene standards for vibration are given in:

    Ordinance № 3 SG 40/2005 on minimum requirements for ensuring health and safety of workers from the risks related to exposure to vibration

    Important!!! It is necessary to peroform them

    1. INTEGRAL PART OF ARE THE RISK ASSESSMENT OF JOBS – controlled by the Labour Inspectorate.

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